Download A Financial History of Western Europe by Charles P. Kindleberger PDF

By Charles P. Kindleberger

Publish 12 months note: First released in 1984 via OUP

This is the 1st background of finance - largely outlined to incorporate cash, banking, capital markets, private and non-private finance, foreign transfers and so on. - that covers Western Europe (with an occasional look on the western hemisphere) and part a millennium.

Charles Kindleberger highlights the advance of monetary associations to fulfill rising wishes, and the similarities and contrasts within the dealing with of economic difficulties reminiscent of shifting assets from one kingdom to a different, stimulating funding, or financing battle and cleansing up the ensuing financial mess. the 1st half the booklet covers funds, banking and finance from 1450 to 1913; the second one offers in significantly finer aspect with the 20 th century.

This significant paintings casts present matters in ancient standpoint and throws gentle at the attention-grabbing, and much from orderly, evolution of monetary associations and the administration of economic difficulties. accomplished, severe and cosmopolitan, this e-book is either a great paintings of reference and crucial studying for all these all for the research and perform of finance, be they fiscal historians, monetary specialists, scholarly bankers or scholars of cash and banking.

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They can be judged at two levels: as petty rivalry coming from personality and interest clashes, or as part of a process of innovation. New men, new ways of doing things threatened the old. The Bank of England and the Bank of France were both started by outsiders. The quarrels are most conspicuous where the old men are deeply resistant and unwilling to accommodate to innovation. In all this, the time frame is important. In the long run, the quantity theory of money is valid. It is often a poor approximation of reality in the short run.

Each chapter beginning with Chapter 2 is completed by a list of suggested supplementary reading. The complete list of works referred to is contained at the end. Introduction 9 Chronologies Chronology I 1453 1508 1521-59 1562-98 1568-1648 1618-48 1642-9 1652-4 1665-7 1672-4 1660 1689-97 1702-13 1739-48 1740-8 1756-63 1775-83 1780-4 1788-9 1789 1793 1795 1802 1803 1815 1848 1854-6 1859 1864 1866 1870-1 1877-8 1899-1902 1914-18 1939-45 End of Hundred Years' War between France and Britain War of the League of Cambrai against Venice Six wars between France and Spain-Austria Wars of religion in France Dutch War of Independence from Spain with truce from 1609-21 Thirty Years' War on Continent Civil War and Revolution in England Three Anglo-Dutch Wars Restoration of the Stuarts Nine Years' War (War of the League of Augsburg) Queen Anne's War (War of the Spanish Succession) War of Jenkins's Ear War of the Austrian Succession Seven Years' War (French and Indian War) American War of Independence Fourth Anglo-Dutch War War of the Bavarian Succession French Revolution Reign of Terror, War of the First Coalition Directory, Consulate and Empire in France under Napoleon Treaty of Amiens, interrupting Napoleonic Wars War resumed Waterloo, Treaty of Vienna Revolutions in France, Germany and Austria Crimean War Austro-Sardinian war, Unification of Italy Prusso-Danish War Prusso-Austrian War Franco-Prussian War Russo-Turkish War Boer War World War I World War II Chronology 1/ 1252 1448 Wars Monetary Events First gold coin minted in western Europe since Roman times, Genoa and Florence Portugal sails to the Gold Coast 10 1492 1540 1545 1552 1596 1602 1620s 1666 1680 1696 1717 1726 1774 1789-95 1797 1803 1816 1819 1838 1848 1849 1857 1859 1860 1860s 1865 1866-81 1867 1870 1871 1873 1878 1886 1914 1919 1923 1924 1924 1925 1926 1931 1931 1934 A Financial History of Western Europe Columbus discovers America Great Tudor debasement of silver under Henry VIn Discovery of Potosi silver mountain in Peru Specie flow from America shifts from gold to silver Spain blackens its coinage with copper Return to the livre tournois in France Kipper- und Wipperzeit (clipping and debasement in Germany and Poland) Free coinage and end of seignorage in England Discovery of gold in Minas Gerais, Brazil British silver recoinage Newton fixed price of gold at £3 17s 10 V2d per troy ounce ·9 fine French monetary reform Silver demonetized in England French issue of assignats British suspension of convertibility of pound French adopt the franc germinal in place of the livre England adopts the gold standard de jure Britain resumes pound convertibility Dresden Convention settling exchange rate between north and south Germany France briefly suspends convertibility Discovery of gold in California Miinzverein (Union of Coinage) among German states and Austria Discovery of Comstock silver lode in Nevada Unification of Italian lira Cyanide process for recovering silver Latin Monetary Union Corso forsozo (forced circulation) of Italian lira International Monetary Conference-Universal Money Temporary suspension of franc convertibility German monetary unification Germany adopts the gold standard International Monetary Conference-bimetallism Discovery of gold in Witwatersrand Suspension of convertibility of all currencies on outbreak of war Supports for pound sterling and French franc abandoneddepreciation Hyperinflation in Germany, followed by Rentenmark Reichsmark Squeeze in French francs punished speculators Restoration of pound to par De facto stabilization of French franc at devalued level German Standstill Agreement Britain abandons the gold standard United States after abandoning gold standard 1933, raises gold price from $20·67 an ounce to $35 Introduction 1936 1940 1944 1946 1947 1949 1958 1960 1960 1961 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1973 1979 II Gold bloc collapses; Tripartite Monetary Agreement Devaluation of the pound to $4-40 Bretton Woods Agreements to establish Fund and World Bank Anglo-American Financial Agreement Pound made convertible; lasted only six weeks.

The French government tried to make copper legal tender in settlement of debts up to one-fortieth of the amounts involved. It failed to help (Mollien, 1845, Vol. 3, pp. 165n, 171). In August 1800, the Bank of France was instructed to pay no more than one-twentieth of the service on rentes in copper (Menias, 1969, p. 98). Gold coins had been used in Roman times, but the first gold coin produced in western Europe in the medieval period was the genoin of Genoa, minted in 1252 (Lopez, 1956). Before that considerable use had been made of the bezant, a gold coin minted in the Levant, or Byzantium.

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