By planned and prepared under the direction of Carroll E. Wood, Jr., assisted by Elizabeth A. Shaw ; with the technical help of Karen S. Velmure and Kenneth R. Robertson.
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Extra resources for A student's atlas of flowering plants : some dicotyledons of eastern North America
This regeneration pathway offers a great potential to be applied in mass propagation, genetic transformation by direct means or via Agrobacterium tumefaciens and as a source of protoplasts as well as for long-term storage of germplasm using cryopreservation. Also fundamental studies of early embryogenesis are easier to be performed with somatic than with zygotic embryos. ), In Vitro Embryogenesis in Higher Plants, Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 1007/978-1-4939-3061-6_2, © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016 25 26 Traud Winkelmann problems that are observed in many different plant species, like asynchronous differentiation and further development of somatic embryos, malformations and disturbed polarity, precocious germination, early loss of embryogenic potential, and strong genotypic differences in the regeneration efﬁciency.
SERK expression was also examined in apomictic Hieracium where it was detected throughout the ovule, and expression was not restricted to the nucellar region or MMC in Hieracium. SERK expression was also observed in developing Hieracium embryos . SERK is therefore thought to play an important role in changing developmental fate of cells, both in stages of apomixis and in somatic embryogenesis. BABYBOOM (BBM) is another gene that has been associated with both in vitro and in vivo asexual embryogenesis.
Despite these differences, in vitro and in vivo asexual embryogenesis share some common factors: a change in the developmental fate of embryogenic precursor cells; and expression of an embryonic pathway in such cells without fertilization. Identifying molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes within in vitro systems may help to understand pathways that lead to apomixis. While some candidate genes for both in vitro and in vivo asexual embryogenesis have been identiﬁed, a role in apomixis has not yet been conﬁrmed for any of these genes.