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By A. Shanker, et al.,

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Additional resources for Abiotic Stress Response in Plants - Phys., Biochem, Genetic Persps

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2002). , 2009). , 2011). SOS2 is regulated through interaction with the Ca2+-sensing protein SALT-OVERLY-SENSITIVE 3 (SOS3). This suggests that calcium is a critical regulator of Na+-transport and osmotic/ionic stress regulation. It is still unclear however, which sensory mechanism and which signaling events lead to the required changes in cellular Ca2+ concentrations that subsequently result in differential regulation of SOS1. Other Ca2+ signalling proteins seem to be involved in the acclimation to abiotic stresses as well.

In the absence of UV-B UVR8 localizes to the nucleus and to the cytosol (Kaiserli & Jenkins, 2007). , 2009; Kaiserli & Jenkins, 2007). Mature chloroplasts, in turn, work as environmental sensors regulating stress response and dynamic acclimation of the photosynthetic mechanism to environmental fluctuations. Environmental factors such as light, temperature and nutrient availability exert a strong effect on the function of plant chloroplasts. Changes in light intensity lead to rearrangement of the light harvesting antenna complexes and changes in composition of the two photosystems.

Plants utilize light as their primary source of energy converting light to usable chemical energy through photosynthesis. Light is an essential prerequisite for Chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis and chloroplast development; events that do not take place in darkness. Early light perception involves three classes of wavelength-specific photoreceptors, phytochromes (PHYs), cryptochromes (CRYs) and phototropines (PHOTs). PHYs, sensing red and far-red light, are synthesized in darkness in an inactive Pr form and localize to the cytosol.

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