By Richard H. Day, Theodore Groves
Read Online or Download Adaptive Economic Models. Proceedings of a Symposium Conducted by the Mathematics Research Center, the University of Wisconsin–Madison, October 21–23, 1974 PDF
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Additional info for Adaptive Economic Models. Proceedings of a Symposium Conducted by the Mathematics Research Center, the University of Wisconsin–Madison, October 21–23, 1974
Now individual free-living cells can exhibit remarkable adaptive powers. By contrast, the most primitive multicellular organisms, as individuals, exhibit a correspondingly far more primitive degree of adaptation. Doubtless, the assumption of multicellular modes of organization ultimately makes possible an evolutionary capability to manifest much higher and more elaborate modes of adaptation than is possible at the cellular level; but the point is that, at the outset, multicellular modes of organization were more primitively adaptable than unicellular ones, and it took eons before the superior latent possibilities for adaptation in multicellulars could be manifested.
The very word "anticipatory" is excluded by physicists and system modellers, because of a host of 56 BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS unpleasant mystical associations (Zadeh and Desoer 1963). As a result, when we encounter a homeostatic process, we almost invariably attempt to understand it in terms of feedbacks; we can always simulate an anticipatory system by a generally far more complex feedback system, but we cannot thereby understand it. Indeed, we have almost no understanding of the dynamical correlates of these systems.
Any notion of optimality must be contingent on an environmental structure -- even if the latter is stochastic. 26 Let it be emphasized again we are talking about the way people are , not how they should or wish to be. See Day . 27 For a review of recursive programming theory and empirical applica- tions see Day and Cigno [forthcoming]. 28 1n doing so a large and useful literature of institutional case studies and surveys can be drawn upon. 29 A prominent example of a massive invasion using adaptive modelling is J.