By Christian Dani, Nathalie Billon (auth.), Michael E. Symonds (eds.)
This booklet is designed to supply a complete perception into present views and demanding situations in adipose tissue biology. In <i>Adipose Tissue Biology</i>, scientists and clinicians talk about adipocyte precursors, differentiation and progress, brown and white adipose tissue, gender, irritation, nutritional and genetic determinants of fats mass, including evolutionary and developmental features of adiposity.
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Extra info for Adipose Tissue Biology
2001). In contrast, mice lacking 11BHSD1 have reduced adiposity (Stewart and Tomlinson 2002). Moreover, obesity is associated with increased 11BHSD1 expression in adipose tissue in both rodents and humans (Rask et al. 2001). Locally produced cortisol may thus act in a paracrine manner to promote adipogenesis in visceral fat tissue. Several studies have reported the effects of MAPK family members on adipogenesis with conflicting results. ERK1 is required in the proliferative phase of differentiation, and blockade of ERK activity in 3T3-L1 cells or in mice inhibits adipogenesis.
Some drugs show a strong influence on adipogenesis. Highly active antiretroviral therapy on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, has been associated with metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, peripheral lipoatrophy and visceral adiposity (Leow et al. 2003). Studies in cell culture have shown that several protease inhibitors, for example nelfinavir and indinavir, decrease preadipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis, while increasing apoptosis and lipolysis (Dowell et al.
The diminished proton gradient has to be restored by electron-driven proton pumping leading to oxygen consumption. Therefore, protons leaking through the membrane cause an “uncoupling” of oxygen consumption from ATP production (Fig. 2). Uncoupling (=proton leak) is a constant process in all mitochondria and accounts for more than 20% of total oxygen consumption in mammals (Rolfe and Brand 1996). Brown adipose tissue mitochondria are an exception to this rule. They are able to dissipate up to 100% of their proton motive force by a regulated leak mechanism driving nonshivering thermogenesis in this heater organ (Nicholls and Locke 1984).