By Toshi H. Arimura
Focusing on pollution, strength potency and weather swap, this publication offers an creation to Japan’s environmental guidelines and rules, and provides monetary analyses and RIAs (Regulatory effect research) of environmental rules applied or deliberate via the nationwide and native governments. the hole bankruptcy reports environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using outdated and polluting autos in metropolitan parts. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan govt law which calls for set up of toxins keep an eye on apparatus in older vehicles that fail to satisfy emission criteria. bankruptcy four strains the effect of the NOx-PM Act at the used automobile industry and used motor vehicle exports. bankruptcy five offers an financial research of a street toll relief, revealing an unforeseen adverse social influence: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters handle rules and rules regarding strength potency and weather switch bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s strength Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended a number of instances to handle weather switch. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the impression of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate non permanent fiscal affects in every one region. additionally offered here's an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the effect of the inspiration on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the function and barriers of monetary types for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse gasoline) emission aim throughout the post-Kyoto interval. this can be the 1st e-book to guage jap environmental rules from an fiscal point of view, utilizing numerous present quantitative ways. Its findings and recommendations will profit scholars, coverage makers and executive officers in constructing and built international locations the place the general public faces related environmental problems.
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Extra info for An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics
Even without the VTR, both NOx and PM emissions volumes decrease over time as a result of natural replacement. Changes in emissions volume under the current VTR are indicated by the small black squares. As illustrated in the figures, both NOx and PM emissions decrease more rapidly under the current VTR than in its absence. 7 Efficiency of the VTR: Simulation of Alternative Policies 43 44 2 Ex Ante Policy Evaluation of the Vehicle Type Regulation Fig. 9 Change in NOx emissions volume under the optimal VTR Fig.
1 for our computational methodology). In principle, we could have used any other year, but this year was chosen because of data availability and because more recent data are preferable. This preference is especially notable given that the life expectancies of trucks have increased compared to those in 1990, for example, because of technological improvements and the deregulation of vehicle inspection (Oka et al. 2007). However, we must also choose from data in the years before the VTR was imposed; as mentioned above, life expectancies are likely to have been shortened under the VTR.
4 billion yen at the lowest. The finding that the highest benefit is more than double the lowest benefit results from the difference between the upper and lower bounds of the MEC. 3 billion yen at the lowest. Both values are positive, confirming the effectiveness of the VTR. Our estimates of the benefit should be interpreted with caution, as they are likely to be biased. However, the direction of the bias can be inferred and is likely to be downward for the following reasons. First, both NETCEN (2002) and Koyama and Kishimoto (2001) estimated the MEC in terms of the medical expenditure, thus excluding disutility from discomfort.